The diagnosis of fungal keratitis was established by positive microscopy and culture findings in 88 patients and by positive microscopy alone in 12 patients. Species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Curvularia were the principal isolates. Thirty-six (72%) of 50 patients (28 of 37 with nonsevere keratitis and 8 of 13 with severe keratitis) showed a favorable response to primary natamycin therapy (mean duration, days), while 30 (60%) of 150 patients (25 of 38 with nonsevere keratitis and 5 of 12 with severe keratitis) exhibited a favorable response to primary itraconazole therapy (mean duration, days). In keratitis due to Fusarium spp, 19 (79%) of 24 patients showed a favorable response to natamycin, which was significantly greater than the 8 (44%) of 18 patients who showed a favorable response to itraconazole (P < ). However, no such difference was evident in keratitis due to Aspergillus spp or Curvularia spp; in keratitis due to Aspergillus spp, favorable responses were noted in 6 (%) of 11 patients receiving natamycin and 5 (50%) of 10 patients receiving itraconazole, while in keratitis due to Curvurlaria spp, such responses occurred in both patients receiving natamycin and in 8 (89%) of 9 patients receiving itraconazole. Both antifungal formulations were generally well tolerated with no obvious adverse effects.