Naringenin's potential antibacterial and antifungal behaviour has been investigated. In 1987, it was reported that naringenin had no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis .  This finding was not replicated in a 2000 study in which naringenin was shown to indeed have an antimicrobial effect on S. epidermidis , as well as Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Micrococcus luteus , and Escherichia coli .  Further research has added evidence for antimicrobial effects against Lactococcus lactis ,  lactobacillus acidophilus , Actinomyces naeslundii , Prevotella oralis , Prevotella melaninogencia , Porphyromonas gingivalis ,  as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis , and Candida krusei .  There is also evidence of antibacterial effects on H. pylori , though naringenin has not been shown to have any inhibition on urease activity of the microbe. 
More recently, androgen receptors have been shown to have a second mode of action. As has been also found for other steroid hormone receptors such as estrogen receptors , androgen receptors can have actions that are independent of their interactions with DNA.   Androgen receptors interact with certain signal transduction proteins in the cytoplasm. Androgen binding to cytoplasmic androgen receptors can cause rapid changes in cell function independent of changes in gene transcription, such as changes in ion transport . Regulation of signal transduction pathways by cytoplasmic androgen receptors can indirectly lead to changes in gene transcription, for example, by leading to phosphorylation of other transcription factors.